Human Digestive System Notes and Parts of Human Digestive System

Human Digestive System Notes and Parts of Human Digestive System. Human Body is a really strange object. Every particle whichever lies in this world has some kind of complexities. Human Digestive system is really complex. Yet the complex Human body is above all. And more appropriately our body consists of all such kind of secrets which are still unrevealed. Talking about such a complex mechanism of Human Body, today we are going to discuss upon the Human Digestive system Notes and Parts of Human Digestive System, Components of the Digestive System, The function of Digestive System Notes. This Human Digestive System Notes will help you to understand all the detail.

Human Digestive System Notes and Parts of Human Digestive System
Human Digestive System Notes and Parts of Human Digestive System

Human Digestive System Notes and Parts of Human Digestive System

The digestive system of our body consists of many parts, including all of them together makes the Alimentary Canal. The human digestive system is a long track that helps us to digest all that we eat. The body not only digests our food but it is also assimilated for further requirements. All such functions are performed in the Digestive System itself.


As per the definition, ‘Human Digestive System is the path through which the food we intake, is swallowed, digested, and assimilated all through under the various chemical reactions performed in the presence of different Hormones and Enzymes.’

Components of the Digestive System/Parts of Human Digestive System:-

Human Digestive System consists of following parts/components as given below:-

  • Buccal Cavity– It has three parts;

1. Oral Cavity, 2. Vestibule, 3. Pharyngeal Region.

  • Pharynx- Oropharynx, Laryngeopharynx, Nasopharynx
  • Oesophagus/ Food Pipe. (Opening is named as Gullet)
  • Stomach– Cardiac, Fundus/Body, Pyloric
  • Small Intestine– Duodenum, Jejunum, Ileum.
  • Large Intestine– Caecum, Rectum, Colon
The function of Digestive System:-

Here is this table you can understand the function of Digestive System:-

Part of Alimentary Canal  It’s Function
Oral Cavity Digestion of Carbohydrates
Oesophagus Swallowing of the Food
Stomach Digestion of Protein and Carbohydrates
Small Intestine Digestion of Protein, Carbohydrates, Fats, Lipids. Absorption of all of these as well.
Large Intestine Egestion of the waste materials of the food.

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Human Digestive System Notes and Parts of Human Digestive System

Tract for the Inflow of Food

The human body requires the intake of Food and Water in an adequate manner. In the absence or deficiency of anyone, the body may have to suffer various kinds of problems. Hence into all such conditions the Human body basically requires a balanced diet so as to perform well. A proverb also says that ‘A Healthy Mind lives only in a Fit Body.’ Hence, following the same a normal diet requires the addition of all the components that are present in a fixed diet.

These components are Carbohydrates, Proteins, Fats, Vitamins, Minerals, Fibres and Water. All of these are takes in the form of food in the human body. Hence, their path is well defined and the Digestive tract leads to the same direction as the food ventures.

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The Process of intake food can be described as Ingestion.

Human Beings ingest their food through the oral cavity, in which the teeth and tongue chew the food properly so as to make it smaller and mix it up with the secretions from the Salivary Glands present in the mouth.

Thereafter, this chewed food is known as Bolus. This is swallowed through the pharyngeal cavity inside the Oesophagus via Gullet. Here the food pipe initiates Peristaltic movements inside itself. Hence, the bolus is pushed into the Cardiac Region of the Stomach.

In the Human Digestive System, the bolus enters into the stomach via Cardiac Sphincter which closes after the entry of food inside. Then the bolus is sent to the Fundus region and thereafter to the Pyloric region. From here the Bolus mixed with Acid and Gastric Enzymes is now sent to the Small Intestine.

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This food is hereby known as Chyme. Hence the acidic chyme is formed. This Chyme is now transferred from the upper Duodenum part towards the lower parts of the small intestine called Jejunum and afterwards to the Ileum region of the small intestine. Hereby, the absorption process starts.

At last this fully digested food is sent to the Large intestine, in which the Caecum, Rectum and Colon outstay the waste which is present in the food and is yet not digested completely.

This process in which the larger macromolecules present in the food are crushed and made into simpler forms while passing through the Alimentary canal is known as Digestion.

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After all these processes, the digested food components are finally assimilated after being absorbed from the Small intestine region. Finally, the waste products are egested out of the body. This process is called Egestion.

Enzymes and Hormones Secreted By the Different Components of Digestive Tract

The different components of the digestive system basically secrete a number of Enzymes and Hormones so as to digest the food components completely. The list of all those secretions is given as below:-

Organ Enzyme Hormone
Mouth Ptylin
Stomach Pepsin



Pancreas Pancreatic Amylase

Pancreatic Lipase



Liver Bile
Small Intestine Intestinal Juice Cholecystokinin




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