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### What is Mass:-

Mass is the measure of amount of substance in a body. (Irrespective of its shape, location and speed. Mass depends on the number and composition of atoms and molecules.

SI unit: kilogram (kg)

Remember: Mass is a scalar quantity.

Mass can’t be changed by location, shape and speed of the body.

### Weight:-

It is a force and has direction.

Weight = Mass × Gravity

W = mg
SI unit: Newton (N)

The direction of the weight acts downwards towards the center of the earth. It is sometimes also called gravitational force/gravity.

### Mass And Weight Relation:-

In order to measure weight:-

• Use electronic balance, spring balance and bathroom scales.
• These machines are calibrated to give readings in grams (g) or kilograms (kg).
• Weighing scales calibrated for use on earth can’t be used on the moon.

In order to measure mass:-

• Use beam balance or calibrated electronic balance.

### Gravitational Field:-

The region around the earth where gravity is experienced is called the gravitational field.

### Gravitational Field Strength:-

It is defined as the gravitational force acting per unit mass on an object. On earth, the gravitational field strength is about 10 Nkg-1. It means that 1 kg of mass experiences a force of 10 N kg-1.

### Gravitational Force:-

• All masses attract one another with this force.
• The larger the mass, the stronger the force.
• The smaller the distance between the mass the stronger the force.

### Inertia:-

The inertia of an object refers to the reluctance of the object to change its state of rest or motion.

The inertia of an object depends on its mass. An object with greater mass has greater inertia and vice versa an object with lower mass would have lower inertia.

In other words the larger the mass of an object, the harder it is to start moving, slow down, move faster or change direction.

### Density:-

Density is defined as mass per unit volume.

SI unit: kgm-3 or g/cm3

Finding the density of a regularly shaped object:-

Here are some steps to find the density of regular shape-

• Use a beam balance to measure Mass
• Use a ruler to measure the sides and calculate volume using the formula of the volume of shape.
• Calculate density by using the formula: Density = mass / volume

Finding the density of an irregular shaped object:-

Here are some steps to find the density of Irregular Shape-

• Use a beam balance to measure Mass
• Lower the object into a half-filled measuring cylinder gently and measure the volume by subtracting initial water level from final water level.

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